perjantai 31. toukokuuta 2013

Kiusallisia tuulahduksia menneisyydestä

PÄIVITETTY: 13.11.2013
PÄIVITETTY: 23.5.2014

Yksi ilmastoalarmistien vakioargumenteista on että ilmastossa tapahtuu nykyään ennennäkemättömän nopeita muutoksia ja muita epämiellyttäviä poikkeuksellisia ääri-ilmiöitä. Toisin kuin ennen, nykyään ilmasto ei ole enää stabiili vaan jäätiköt sulavat ja sääilmiöt vaativat jopa ihmishenkiä.

Nykyään monet vanhat sanomalehdet on digitoitu ja julkisesti haettavissa. Tämä onkin innostanut monia toimittajia ja blogaajia – pääasiassa nimimerkki Steven Goddardia – etsimään ilmastokeskustelun kannalta mielenkiintoisia uutisia menneisyydestä. Varsinkin nykyisten sääilmiöiden ennennäkemättömyyttä ajatellen.

Koska näiden uutisten runsas lukumäärä on nimenomaan kirjoitukseni pointti, kirjoituksenikin on valitettavasti erittäin pitkä. Tässä nimittäin on löytöjä listattuna aikajärjestyksessä (lisään näitä vielä myöhemmin kunhan uusia löydöksiä ilmenee):

1837: Malediivit katoavat mereen!
‘ The natives observe the atolls to be wasting away; in some the cocoanut trees are standing in the water ; in another the black soil of the island is discernible at low water thirty feet from the beach ; the south-east side of an island in Phaidee Pholo Atoll is entirely gone, but is marked by a banyan tree in the water. They say that some islands have disappeared entirely and instance near the island Wardoo a rocky shoal, which (they say) was once an island in Atoll-Milla-Dou.
1839: Taifuuni iski Intiaan, tappaen 300 000.

1871: Sää on poikkeuksellisen poikkeuksellinen!
... All this, it may be said, happens because the weather has been exceptional in intensity and variableness. But there must be a first time to everything, and who shall say that some great change of climatology has not occured to bring upon that hitherto favored section the blight of future frosts, and the precariousness of our northern climate? ... 
Among the effects of that change in our climate which is gradually going on, none is more noticable than that which has, this Winter, transformed the usually sunny South into an uncongenial region. ... To learn that the Florida orange groves, with their golden fruit, have been ruined by heavy frosts, and that the temperature down in that paradise of the sich has thus far proved intolerably cold and deadly, is news for which very few people could be prepared.
1871: Ilmastotilastojen hehkuttaminen aiheutti jo tuolloin närkästystä:
We have often noticed that in the tabular statements of those compilers of weather records who write to the Times, useful and welcome as their communications are, every season is sure to be "extraordinary," almost every month one of the driest or wettest, orwindiest, coldest or hottest, ever known. Much observation, which ought to correct a tendency to exaggerate, seems in some minds to have rather a tendency to increase it. And many seem now to regard three dry hot years insuccession as betokening some general change of climate, as if it was not perfectly certain, in the wide range of the table of what we call chances, that with our existing conditions 
of climate such a combination must every now and then recur.
1876: Taifuuni iski Bangladeshiin, tappaen 200 000.

1881: Hurrikaani iski Englantiin, surmaten satoja.

1881: Taifuuni iski Vietnamiin, tappaen 300 000 ihmistä.

1890: Ilmasto lämpenee poikkeuksellisesti:
“Is our climate changing? The succession of temperate summers and open winters through several years, culminating last winter in the almost total failure of the ice crop throughout the valley of the Hudson, makes the question pertinent. The older inhabitants tell us that the winters are not as cold now as when they were young, and we have all observed a marked diminution of the average cold even in this last decade.”New York Times, June 23, 1890
1896: Keski-Australiassa mitattiin lämpöaallon aikana 55C varjossa.

1898: 7000 ihmistä kuoli filippiineille osuneessa taifuunissa.

1899: Valtava tulva Teksasissa.
Most appalling tales are being told of sufferings endured during the great floods in Texas, which swept the Brazos Valley for a distance of 500 miles by 50 miles wide, and caused damages estimated at two millions sterling.
A thousand of the unfortunate inhabitants took refuge on some mounds – –
1900: Kymmenentuhatta amerikkalaista kuoli hurrikaanin nostattamassa valtavassa myrskyvuoksessa, joka tuhosi Galvestonin kaupungin käytännöllisesti katsottuna kokonaan.

1902: Alppien jäätiköt sulavat:
"Alpine Glaciers Disappearing. 
Hotel-keepers in the Alps have a new trouble and are complaining at the loss ofpatrons. The attractive glaciers are said to be actually passing from the landscape, and as they recede the hotels along their borders find their visitors becoming fewer. 
These glaciers are not running away, by any means, but they are deteriorating slowly, with a persistency that means their final annihilation. Hotels that a few years ago stood very near to a great river of slowly-moving ice now find themselves aconsiderable distance away. The famous glaciers of the Rhone have shrunk several thousand feet in the last 20 years; considerably more than 100ft a year. A number of the well-known glaciers are also shrinking at about the same rate, and the fact is established that these reminders of the great glacial period are certainly disappearing."
1910: Marcott:n mukaan tuolloin elettiin yhtä kylmintä ajanjaksoa koko nykyisen interglasiaalin aikana, mutta uutiset näyttivät silti tältä:
Except over a small area, it is generally understood, the glaciers of the world are retreating to the mountains. The glacier on Mount Sermiento in South America, which descended to the sea when Darwin found it in 1836, is now separated from the shore by a vigorous growth of timber. The Jacobshaven glacier in Greenland has retreated four miles since 1850, and the East glacier in Spitzbergen is more than a mile away from its original terminal moraine. 
In Scandinavia the snowline is further up the mountains, and the glaciers have withdrawn 3,000ft. from the lowlands in a century. The Araphoe glacier in the Rocky Mountains, with characteristic American enterprise, has been melting at a rapid rate for several years. In the Eastern Alps and one or two other small districts the glaciers are growing. In view of these facts we should not be too sceptical when old men assure us that winters nowadays are not to be compared with the winters of their boyhood. 
1910: Maailmasta loppuu vesi ja jälkeläisemme tulevat kuolemaan nanoon!
This evidence we find in the known disappearance of many great bodies of
water which existed on various parts of the globe in former times, and in
teh gradual, and in some cases rapid desiccation (drying off) of vast continental areas. Nothing more ominous could well be found than the proof afforded by recent scientific exploration of Central Asia that a large partof the greatest of the continents, the
one which is believed to have contained the Garden of Eden and the cradle of mankind, has been turnedinto a waterless desert within the historic period!  
1912: Antarktiksen jäätiköt kutistuvat, koska alue kylmenee.
Most of the glaciers in Antarctica are dying, that is to say, decreasing in size and not flowing. Strange to say, meteorologists argue that the diminution of ice indicates that the climate was formerly milder than now. Ice and snow only accumulate where there is occasional warmth with moisture and variations of temperature. A continuous dry cold does not favour the accumulation of ice and snow.
1912: 15 000 ihmistä kuoli Filippiineillä taifuunissa.

1913: Usassa tornado tappoi 250 ihmistä.

1913: Usassa Ohio-joen tulva tappoi tuhat ihmistä ja teki 200 000 ihmisestä kodittomia.

1914: Globaalin ilmaston muuttuminen aiheuttaa maailmanlaajuisen kuivuuden!
Professor Gregory said that in recent years they had often been warned that a great climatic change was now carrying the world, slowly and irrestibly, towards world-wide drought.  
1921: Ilmaston lämpeneminen sulatti alppien jäätkköjä ja aiheutti turistien vammautumisia, lumivyöryjä, kyynpuremia.

1922: Taifuuni iski Kiinaan, surmaten 100 000.

1922: Pohjoinen napa-alue sulaa.
The Arctic seems to be  warming up.  Reports from fishermen, seal hunters,  and  explorers who sail the seas about Sitzbergen and the eastern Arctic, all point to a radical change in climatic conditions, and hitherto unheard-of  high temperatures in that part of the earth's surface. – – 
The  oceanographic observations  have,  however, been even more interesting. Ice conditions were exceptional. In fact, so little ice has never before been noted. The expedition all but established a record, sailing  as far north  as  81° 29'  in  ice-free water.  This is the farthest north ever reached with modern oceanographic apparatus. – –
Many old landmarks are so changed as to be unrecognizable. Where formerly great masses of  ice were found there are now often moraines, accumulations of earth and stones. At many points where glaciers formerly extended far into the sea they have entirely disappeared.
Erityisen mielenkiintoista tässä on tuo leveyspiiri jolle fäärsaarilta purjehdittiin. Nasan kuva vuoden 2012 jääminimistä:



Tässä on tuo 81° 29':


Ero ei ole henkeä salpaava ja asettaa 90 vuotta myöhemmin tapahtuneen jääminimin "ennennäkemättömyyden" oikeisiin mittasuhteisiin.

1923: Pohjoinen napa-alue sulaa edelleen:
"THAWING IN ARCTIC.

DISCOVERY OF ISLAND.
PREVIOUSLY ICE BURIED.

CHRISTIANIA, September 1

The Norwegian, Captain Wiktor Arnesen, who has just returned from the Arctic, clains to have discovered an island 12 miles in circumference near the Franz Joseph Island, in lati- tude 80.40. He says that the island previously was hidden by an iceberg between 70 and 80 feet high, which has melted, showing the exceptional nature of the recent thawing in the Arctic."
1923: Uusi jääkausi oli tulossa:
"Professor Gregory of Yale University stated that “another world ice-epoch is due.” He was the American representative to the Pan-Pacific Science Congress and warned that North America would disappear as far south as the Great Lakes, and huge parts of Asia and Europe would be “wiped out.”" – Chicago Tribune, Aug. 9, 1923
1923: Mannerjäätiköt etenevät kohti etelää, mikä viittaa uuden jääkauden tuloon:
“The discoveries of changes in the sun's heat and southward advance of glaciers in recent years have given rise to the conjectures of the possible advent of a new ice ageTime Magazine, Sept. 10, 1923
1929: Antarktiksen jäätiköt uhkaavat sulaa ja hukkuttaa rannikkoalueet.

1930: Alppien jäätiköt ovat kutistumassa.
Word comes from Switzerland that the Alpine glaciers are in full retreat. Out of 102 glaciers observed by Professor P. L. Mercanton of the University of Lausanne and his associates more than two-thirds have been found to be shrinking. Does this mean the approach of a warmer climate, such as swept over our globe thousands of years ago?

1931: Kiinassa kuoli kaksi miljoonaa ihmistä tulvakatastrofissa. Syynä olivat ennennäkemättömän rankat sateet.

1931: Tulvan jälkeen Kiinaan iski taifuuni, nälänhätä ja malariaepidemia.

1931: Kuivuus aiheutti nälänhädän Usassa.
The severity of the situation in the drought area of the United States is becoming increasingly apparent, and is occupying the attention of officials at Washington.Reports are pouring in from the suffering areas of starvation and hardships.Demand for help is growing increasingly heavier in the districts of Texas, Tennessee and Mississippi.
1932: Antarktiksella Rossin jäähylly kutistui viisi metriä päivässä vuosien 1900 ja 1930 välillä.
SOME great world change is taking place on the Antarctic Continent. 
Its glaciers are shrinking. Commander L.A. Bernacchi, who visited the South Polar land 30 years ago, says that the Great Ice Barrier which fronts the continent with a wall of ice for 250 miles has receded at least 30 miles since it was first seen and surveyed.
1933: Kiinan tulvissa kuoli 50 000 ihmistä.
1933: Etelä-Afrikan maissisato puolittui vakavan kuivuuden takia.
Drought affects the Orange Free State, the north-west of the Cape Province, and the Mid- lands. The maize crop has been reduced from 20,000,000 bags to 9,000,000 bags. None of it is available for export, and the price has advanced. It is anticipated that the Govern- ment will distribute maize to feed stock. 
Thousands of sheep have died, and the railway resources are being taxed to the utmost in removing stock to pasturage, but isolated areas are in a hopeless condition. Members representing the Free State hope that the Government will distribute wheat seed. The winter outlook is the worst that has been experienced for 50 years.
1934: Paluu kylmyyteen uhkaa:
“America is believed by Weather Bureau scientists to be on the verge of a change of climate, with a return to increasing rains and deeper snows and the colder winters of grandfather's day.Associated Press, Dec. 15, 1934

1935: Edellisenä vuonna kärsittiin maailmanlaajuisesti suorastaan ällistyttävässä määrin ääri-ilmiöistä.
'Acts of God'' such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, and storms ravaged the four corners of the globe, hurling thousands to their deaths and rendering millions homeless.
1935: Japanissa tulvii.
There has been further excessive rainfall in the Chikugo province. The river rose 23 feet, endangering refugees on higher ground. There were 85 deaths in Tokyo, where 292 houses were carried off, 916 completely wrecked, 191,000 damaged, and 515 bridges destroyed. The cities of Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, and Gifu are involved in the flooding, as a result of which half a million people are discomforted.
1935: Tuhat floridalaista kuoli hurrikaanissa.

1935: Kuivuus ja pölymyrsky tuhosivat sadon Usassa.

1935: Intiassa mitattiin +51C varjossa.
An unprecedented heat wave in southern India has taken a heavy toll.
Thatch roofs ignited under the heat. At Khammamett in Hyderabad, a record temperature of 124 degrees was registered. 
A temperature of 116 was common over a wide area. Animals and birds are dying in thousands. 
In Assam, on the contrary there has been heavy rain, and at Cheerapunji,
the wettest place in the world, 23 inches of rain fell in one day
1935: Australian Queenslandissä pahin kuivuus sitten vuoden 1902 ja muita sään ääri-ilmiöitä.
Despite a disastrous storm at Cloncurry on Friday, it was confined to two areas only, and the Cloncurry River bed is still dry. Stations along the Leichhardt River and between Boulia Creek and Normanton have never before been in such a serious plight, and
stock is now in such a low condition that heavy losses are inevitable. Edible shrubs have long since been eaten out, and artesian bores and wells are giving out everywhere. 
At Charleville tho position is becoming worse every day owing to the absence of water for stock, and many well-known holdings have only one week's supply. Special trains conveying stock to other districts and 12,000 sheep have arrived at Charleville.
1935: 60 000 intialaista kuoli taifuunissa.

1936: 12 000 amerikkalaista kuoli yli 38 celsiusasteen kuumuuteen lämpöaallossa.

1936: Usan Keskilännessä ennätyksellinen kuivuus, itärannikolla laajoja tulvia.
A quarter of the area of the United States was under flood waters today. It is a disaster ranking with the worst calamities from natural causes that have occurred in the history of the nation. Property damage is so great that it is almost incalculable. Loss of life may exceed 1000 for already 160 fatalities are known and 40 people are missing. As Eastern American States became almost covered with water, terrible dust-storms raged across the central and western States, tearing the crops out by the roots and laying waste thousands of square miles of country. Where the dust struck snow storms, it rained mud.
1936: Mississippi -joki kuivui lähes kokonaan.

1936: Sata Usan kaupunkia joutui tulvan alle.
Over 100 cities in 14 States reported themselves flooded, with essential services crippled or altogether stopped. 
As the flood receded farther north areas to the south began to feel the full force of the high waters, but the situation was further aggravated by torrential rains throughout New York and New England, which started a sec- ond deluge piling down the valleys and threatening more floods in all those places already prostrated by the visitation.
1936: Aavikot laajenevat kaikkialla.

1936: Tornadot tappoivat 478 ihmistä yhden viikon aikana. Yksi tornado tappoi 213 ihmistä.

1937: Tulvat, nälänhädät, maanjäristykset, tulipalot yms. aiheuttivat edellisenä vuonna hävitystä ympäri maailmaa – mutta varsinkin Kiinalaisia koeteltiin.

Most devastating disaster of the year was the spring famine in the Szechwan and Honan provinces of China, in which thirty million people faced starvation. This was an added blow to a country which, since 1920, has been prostrated by sixty-eight floods and famines.

1938: Poikkeuksellinen lämpeneminen havaittu pohjoisella napa-alueella:
Along with the fluctuations in ice abundance in each individual sea from year to year, in late years a most interesting phenomenon has been observed – a warming of the Arctic, as evidence by a gradual and universal decrease in ice abundance. The main evidence of this general warming of the Arctic are:
1. Receding of glaciers and “melting away” of islands….all the Greenland glaciers which descend into Northeast Bay and Disko Bay have been receding since approximately the beginning of the century. On Franz Joseph Land during recent years several islands have appeared as if broken in two. It turned out they had been connected up to that time by ice bridges. …I noted a great decrease in the size of (Jan Mayan and Spitzbergen) glaciers. Ahlman terms the rapid receding of the Spitzbergen glaciers “catastrophic”.
2. Rise of air temperature. (Over the last 20 years) the average temperature of the winter months has steadily increased…(in the last 10 years) in the whole Arctic sector from Greenland to Cape Chelyuskin there has not been a single (negative) anomaly of average annual and monthly winter temperatures, while the positive anomalies have been very high….
3. Rise in temperature of Atlantic water which enters the Arctic Basin…the temperature of surface water and of Gulf Stream water has steadily risen…
4. Decrease in ice abundance….15% to 20% (over 20 years)….In earlier times, polar ice often approached the shores of Iceland and interfered with fishing and navigation. For the past 25 years ice has not appeared in significant quantities.
5. Increase in speed of drift ice.
6. Change in cyclone routes. There is no doubt that the increase in air temperatures, increase in Atlantic water temperatures, intensification of ice drift, etc., are closely connected with an intensification of atmospheric circulation, and in particular with a change in cyclonic activity at high latitudes. Vize shows that Atlantic cyclones are now shifting considerably north, by several hundred km, from their courses in the period before the warming of the Arctic. 
7. Biological signs of warming of the Arctic. …fish have ranged further and further to the north…cod in large quantities have appeared along the shores of Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemlya…also mackerel, dolphin where formerly were not found…during recent years fishing has gradually shifted into the Arctic waters, and this unquestionably must be ascribed in considerable degree to the warming of these waters….many heat-loving bottom organisms are now found in regions these organisms were not found (30 years ago). Knipovich says: “ In a matter of fifteen years…there occurred a change…such as is usually associated with long geological intervals”.
8. Ship navigation. …a number of ship voyages (were made) which could hardly have been accomplished in the preceding cold period. 
Still more remarkable is the fact that the warming of the Arctic is not confined to any particular region. Arctic Ice, N.N. Zubov. 
1939: Jäätiköt vetäytyvät maailmanlaajuisesti, geologit ymmällään:
"One of the riddles which is puzzling geologists all over the world is the continuous retreat of the ice glaciers. Does this phenomenon indicate that the sun is getting hotter as some astronomers believe or is it dependent uponcomparatively unimportant changes in the earth’s atmosphere? – –  
The steady retreat of the glaciers in New Zealand he said had been observed during the last 70 years. Photographs taken in 1896 and 1935 showed that several glaciers had retreated distances varying from 100 yards to half a mile in 40 years
WORLD-WIDE PHENOMENON 
The phenomenon, however, was world-wide. Equally impressive records were obtainable from Switzerland, Scandinavia, Iceland and the United States. – – In Alaska glaciers had been retreating from 100 to 200 years, the average rate of recession being about 50 feet a year. The Antarctic ice- sheet also showed signs of recent retreat. 
“In fact,” said Professor Speight, “no case is recorded of a region of the world in which there are present signs of an advance. This is quite apart from the general retreat since the pleistocene age and may be merely a pacing phase. Its precise significance can only be determined by continued observation.”
1940: Pohjoisen napa-alueen lämpötilakehityksestä ja jäätikön paksuudesta:
it was concluded that near Polar temperatures are on an average six degrees higher than those registered by Nansen 40 years ago. Ice measurements were on an average only 6½ feet against from 9¼ to 13 feet. Russian report from 1940
Erityisen mielenkiintoiseksi tämän uutisen tekee se että mainittu jään paksuus sattuu olemaan jotakuinkin sama kuin vuonna 2012.

1940: Grönlannin ilmasto lämpenee katastrofaalisesti.
By far the largest number of local glaciers in north-east Greenland had receded very greatly during recent decades, and it would not be exaggerating to say that these glaciers were nearing a catastrophe.
1947: pohjoinen napa-alue sulaa:
A mysterious warming of the climate is slowly manifesting itself in the Arctic, and if the Antarctic ice regions and the major Greenland ice cap should reduce at the same sate as the present melting, oceanic surfaces would rise to catastrophic proportions, – –
– – temperatures in the Arctic have increased by 10 degrees Fahrenheit since 1900, an "enormous" rise from the scientific standpoint.
"The Arctic change is so serious that I hope an international agency can speedily be formed to study conditions on a global basis." said Dr. Ahlmann.
He pointed out that in 1910 the navigable season along the western Spitzbergen lasted three months. Now it lasts eight months. 
1949: Länsi-Antarktiksen jäätikkö on ohentunut paikoin yli 300 metriä.
Parts of the great south polar icecap are at least 1000 feet thinner than few centuries ago. Evidence of what seems to be a fairly rapid deglaciation of the earth's seventh continent is presented in the report of Dr. Robert Dodson, geologist of the Ronne Antarctic expedition last winter, which has just been released by the office of naval research. 

1949: Ilmasto lämpenee, jäätiköt sulavat:
World "Becoming Warmer" 
Although there was nothing to suggest that there would be any change in the seasons, the earth was warming and climates tended to become milder, the lecturer in charge of geography at the University of Adelaide (Dr Charles Fenner) said yesterday. 
Glaciers were melting. They were now only a fraction of their former size. Pine forests were advancing to the north and deserts would probably extend away from the equator. 
The movement was so slow that there was nothing to worry about, but it was a factor in long-range planning.
1950: Ilmasto lämpenee, eläinlajit muuttavat pohjoiseen, etc.:
GLACIER melting and disappearance in the Arctic regions has created a suspicion that the earth is becoming warmer, so an expedition to the Norwegian section of the Antarctic to learn whether a similar phenomenon is in progress there has been financed by Britain, Norway and Sweden. German aviators reported as long ago as 1938 that certain mountain peaks in Queen Maud Land, previously ice covered, were bare at the top. 
Along the Rift Valley, in Africa, and in Central America, a retreat of glaciers has been noticed, and the signs of a changing climate are reinforced by the migration of fish in the North Atlantic to unusually high latitudes. Cod, for example, goesnine degrees farther north than in the past and the herring travels as far as Greenland. 
Spitzbergen, which was open to navigation only three months a year not long ago, is open for seven months now. To cap it all, land which the Vikings cultivated in Greenland and Iceland (which has been under ice for 1000 years) is bare again now. 
Retreat of glaciers is not at a steady pace, for in a period of'waning they may make two or three slight advances in exceptional seasons; but an average rate of disappearance can be calculated. Scientists desire to know the reason for the change and to prepare for the effect of it.

One hypothesis is that the earth is becoming warmer—a phrase which has more than one mean- ing. It could imply an increase of internal heat, due to the growing pressure of the contracting surface, or it could be caused by chemical action. 
There is one school of thought which suggests that the earth is getting a little closer to the sun or else that the heat of the sun is increasing. Move- ment toward the sun would be checked in time by the greater speed of revolution, which would take the earth outward again, so there is no danger of absorption. Less precipitation of moisture may explain everything. 
Other thinkers on the subject point to the great amount of volcanic activity in recent years, and suggest that the air percentage of carbon dioxide is increasing as a result. Change of direction of ocean currents is another suggestion which might meet some of the noticed phenomena.

It is anybody's guess so far, and now an effort is to be made to trace what is happening on the earth. When the scientists find out, there will be the problem of what to do about it. The answer may be that they can do nothing except "wait and see."
1950: Maapallon ilmasto on seonnut.
The floods and record rains that bedevilled the eastern States recently were part of a world cycle of unusual weather, said the chief meteorologist at Sydney's Weather Bureau (Mr. J. Hogan).
The cause of this cycle was that bands of high and low pressure had shifted from their normal place on the earth's surface.
No one knows yet why they shifted, but meteorologists all over the world are trying to lind out. If and when they do find out, the secret of long range weather forecasting will be in their grasp.
1950: Ilmasto lämpenee, meret nousevat, katastrofi uhkaa!
The world's climate has become slowly warmer and there is a danger that the level of the oceans may be raised, causing serious inundations, as the result of melting of glaciers and polar icecaps.
1950: Pohjoinen napajäätikkö on katoamassa lämpöaallon uhrina.
An example of the rising temperature is that of Spitzbergen, only 800 miles from the North Pole. In 30 years the average winter level of the thermometer has gone up by nine degrees Celsius. – – 
"So much ice has vanished on Greenland," the Swedish scientist explained after a careful survey, "that the entire character of this northern country has changed."

1952: Norjan ja Alaskan jäätiköt ovat kutistuneet puoleen 50 vuoden takaisesta!
The glaciers of Norway and Alaska are only half the size they were 50 years ago. The tempera - ture around Spitsbergen has so modified that the sailing time has lengthened from three to eight months of the year,
1952: Pohjoinen napajää sulaa ällistyttävällä ja selittämättömällä vauhdilla ja merenpinnan nousu uhkaa upottaa satamakaupungit:
Dr. William S. Carlson, an Arctic expert, said tonight that the Polar icecaps were melting at an astonishing and unexplained rate and were threatening to swamp seaports by raising the ocean levels.
1954: Grönlannin ilmasto lauhtuu:
“Greenland's polar climate has moderated so consistently that communities of hunters have evolved into fishing villages. Sea mammals, vanishing from the west coast, have been replaced by codfish and other fish species in the area's southern waters.”New York Times, Aug. 29, 1954
1958: Antarktis lämpenee hurjaa vauhtia:
“An analysis of weather records from Little America shows a steady warming of climate over the last half century. The rise in average temperature at the Antarctic outpost has been about five degrees Fahrenheit.”New York Times, May 31, 1958
1958: Mihin ihmeeseen maailman jäätiköt katoavat?
“Several thousand scientists of many nations have recently been climbing mountains, digging tunnels in glaciers, journeying to the Antarctic, camping on floating Arctic ice. Their object has been to solve a fascinating riddle: what is happening to the world's ice? New York Times, Dec. 7, 1958
1958: Pohjoisen napajäätikön katoaminen uhkaa käynnistää uuden jääkauden.

– – removal of the ice cover on the Arctic Ocean would saturate the now dry polar air, creating moist winds that would cascade such a heavy snows on Canada and Eurasia as to bring a new ice age. 

1960: New Scientistin mukaan napa-alue on lämmennyt jopa 7C vuodesta 1910, ja jos tämä jatkuu, pohjoinen napa-alue on jäätön paitsi kesät, myös talvet jo vuoteen 2000 mennessä!
If winter temperatures alone are not compared, this recent warming is more marked. If the comparisons are made farther north than the northmost limits of the United States, even greater warming is evident. Since 1910, for instance, the mean winter temperature in Spizbergen is up 14 degrees F. 
"If this goes on," Mr. Murphy points out, "the Arctic Ocean will be open the year round" before the close of the twentieth century.

1961: Ilmasto kylmenee:
“After a week of discussions on the causes of climate change, an assembly of specialists from several continents seems to have reached unanimous agreement on only one point: it is getting colder.”New York Times, Jan. 30, 1961
1962: Uusi jääkausi uhkaa meitä:
“Like an outrigger canoe riding before a huge comber, the earth with its inhabitants is caught on the downslope of an immense climatic wave that is plunging us toward another Ice Age.”Los Angeles Times, Dec. 23, 1962
1969: Pohjoinen napa-alue sulaa ja pohjoisnapa voi olla sula jo vuosien 1980-1990 aikana:
Col. Bernt Balchen, polar explorer and flier, is circulating a paper among polar specialists proposing that the Arctic pack ice is thinning and that the ocean at the North Pole may become an open sea within a decade or two. – New York Times, Feb. 20, 1969
1969: Ensimmäinen supertankkeri navigoi menestyksekkäästi luoteisväylän läpi.

1969: Uusi jääkausi uhkaa.

1970: Saasteet pimentävät auringon:
“By 1985, air pollution will have reduced the amount of sunlight reaching earth by one half . . . ."Life magazine, January 1970
1970: Kaikki merieläimet kuolevat vuoteen 1980 mennessä:
“In ten years all important animal life in the sea will be extinct. Large areas of coastline will have to be evacuated because of the stench of dead fish.”Paul Ehrlich, Earth Day, 1970
1970: Maailma loppuu joskus vuosien 1985 ja 2000 välillä.
Civilization will end within 15 or 30 years unless immediate action is taken against problems facing mankind. We are in an environmental crisis which threatens the survival of this nation, and of the world as a suitable place of human habitation.Barry Commoner (Washington University), Earth Day, 1970
1970: Uusi jääkausi tulee jälleen!
“The United States and the Soviet Union are mounting large-scale investigations to determine why the Arctic climate is becoming more frigid, why parts of the Arctic sea ice have recently become ominously thicker and whether the extent of that ice cover contributes to the onset of ice ages.”New York Times, July 18, 1970
1970: Taifuuni iski Bangladeshiin tappaen 300 000 - 500 000 ihmistä.

1971: Nasan tiedemies ennustaa James Hansenin ilmastomallin avulla uuden jääkauden tulevan 50-60 vuoden kuluttua.

1971: Ihminen aiheuttaa päästöillään uuden jääkauden.
“In the next 50 years, fine dust that humans discharge into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuel will screen out so much of the sun's rays that the Earth's average temperature could fall by six degrees. Sustained emissions over five to 10 years, could be sufficient to trigger an ice age."Washington Post, July 9, 1971
1971: Ihminen aiheuttaa päästöillään uuden jääkauden – vertaisarvioitu versio.
Effects on the global temperature of large increases in carbon dioxide and aerosol densities in the atmosphere of Earth have been computed. It is found that, although the addition of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere does increase the surface temperature, the rate of temperature increase diminishes with increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. For aerosols, however, the net effect of increase in density is to reduce the surface temperature of Earth. Because of the exponential dependence of the backscattering, the rate of temperature decrease is augmented with increasing aerosol content. An increase by only a factor of 4 in global aerosol background concentration may be sufficient to reduce the surface temperature by as much as 3.5 ° K. If sustained over a period of several years, such a temperature decrease over the whole globe is believed to be sufficient to trigger an ice age.
1972: Pohjoinen napa-alue on jäätön vuoteen 2000 mennessä!
Arctic specialist Brent Balchen says a general warming trend over the North Pole is melting the polar ice cap and may produce an ice-free Arctic Ocean by the year 2,000. ...
In a study on the polar climate Balchen says the ice pack over the Arctic Ocean decreased from 43 feet in depth in 1893 to a current average thickness of six to eight feet, winter and summer, over an area of five million square kilometers. 
1973: Pohjoisen napa-alueen jäätikkö on laajentunut 12% muutaman viime vuoden aikana. Kylmenevä ilmasto tuo ääri-ilmiöitä riesaksemme.
– – the mantle of polar ice increased by 12 per cent over previous years and has not returned to its "normal" size. Sea temperatures in the North Atlantic have dropped, shipping lanes are cluttered with abnormal amounts of ice, and the Gulf Stream has retreated slightly southward. 
Climatologists see this cooling as part of a trend – one that will surely lead to more erratic weather and so to food shortaged.
1973: Tiedemiehet varoittavat uuden jääkauden olevan tulossa.

1974: Kylmenevä ilmasto aiheuttaa kuivuutta, nälänhätiä, tulvia kylmiä keväitä.

1974: Uusi jääkausi uhkaa ääri-ilmiöineen.
–– a growing number of scientists are beginning to suspect that many seemingly contradictory meteorological fluctuations are actually part of a global climatic upheaval. However widely the weather varies from place to place and time to time, when meteorologists take an average of temperatures around the globe they find that the atmosphere has been growing gradually cooler for the past three decades. The trend shows no indication of reversing. Climatological Cassandras are becoming increasingly apprehensive, for the weather aberrations they are studying may be the harbinger of another ice age.
1974: Uusi jääkausi uhkaa.
A new ice age could grip the world within the lifetime of present generations, Britons were warned yesterday.
The warning came in a major television documentary showing that international scientists have changed their minds about the speed with which the world's "weather machine" can change gear. 
"The threat of a new ice age must now stand along side nuclear war as a likelysource of wholesale ' death and mistery for mankind", said science writer Nigel Calder, who compiled the pro gram for the British Broad casting Corporation. 
Latest studies show that ice ages are much more frequent than scientists once thought - and the next one seems to be overdue.
1974: Usan liittovaltio pelkää uutta jääkautta.

1974: Uusi jääkausi on tulossa.

1975: Ilmasto on jäähtynyt vuodesta 40-luvulta niin voimakkaasti että uusi jääkausi uhkaa.

1975: Uusi jääkausi uhkaa.

1975: Pohjoisen napa-alueen jääpeite on laajentunut 12% viimeisen vuosikymmenen aikana ja uusi jääkausi uhkaa.

1975: Tiedemiehet varoittavat: uusi jääkausi uhkaa.

1975: Pohjoinen napajäätikkö on laajentunut niin paljon viimeisen kymmenen vuoden aikana, että uusi pieni jääkausi uhkaa! Kylmyys laajentaa aavikoita!

1975: Taifuuni iski Kiinaan, surmaten 171 000.

1976: 144 ihmistä hukkui Big Thomson -kanjonin tulvassa.

1976: Uhkaava kylmeneminen tulee kiusaamaan ihmiskuntaa sään ääri-ilmiöiden kautta. Ilonpilaajaskeptikot ovat skeptisiä.
They believe that the earth's climate has moved into a cooling cycle, which means highly erratic weather for decades to come. And that, they say, has profound implications – most of them bad – for world food production, economic stability and social order. – – 
Some scientists think all that is nonsense, mainly because climatologists can offer no scientific proof to back up their theories. If meteologists, using sophisticated computers, can forecast weather only a day or two in advance, they ask, how can climatologists project climate years ahead? 
"It is interesting," said one skeptical scientist, "But some of their stuff is right out of fantasy land."
1978: Uusi jääkausi on tulossa edelleen.

1978: Ei sille nyt voi mitään – jääkausi tulee ja kamalaa tulee olemaan.
An international team of specialists has concluded from eight indexes of climate that there is no end in sight to the cooling trend of the last 30 years, at least in the Northern Hemisphere.
Sama asiantuntijajoukko toteaa ettei data riitä eteläisen pallonpuoliskon lämpötilakehityksen selvittämiseen.
Data from the Southern  Hemisphere, particularly south of latitude 30 south, are so meager that reliable conclusions are not possible, the report says. 
1978: Ilmastotutkijoiden konsensuksen mukaan katastrofia ei tule ainakaan 1900-luvulla, mutta saattaa olla että ilmasto lämpenee, viilenee tai pysyy ennallaan.
“A poll of climate specialists in seven countries has found a consensus that there will be no catastrophic changes in the climate by the end of the century. But the specialists were almost equally divided on whether there would be a warming, a cooling or no change at all.”New York Times, Feb. 18, 1978
Vuonna 1986 ohitimme "monien tiedemiesten turvallisena pitämän" ilmakehän hiilidioksidipitoisuuden – 350 miljoonasosaa. Edellä mainittujen uutisten kuvaaman, turvallisen, ääri-ilmiöttömän, ennustettavan ja vakaan ilmaston aika loppui. Näihin aikoihin myös vuosituhansia stabiilina pysynyt pohjoinen napa-alue alkoi sulamaan.

3 kommenttia:

  1. No siinä oli kauhukuvia jokaiselle. Valinnanvaraa ainakin on. Ei tarvitse rajoittua nykyiseen yhden kauhuskenaarion totuuteen. Hehehe!

    VastaaPoista
  2. Eipä ne lehmän pierut (metaani) taidakkaan sulattaa kaikkia jäätiköitä

    VastaaPoista
  3. tässä on varmasti takana salaliitto. muurahaisten, skorpionien ja krokotiilien salaliitto. jos ihmisistä päästään eroon, saadaan taas olla rauhassa joitain satoja tuhansia vuosia.

    VastaaPoista